Timeframe: 12-18+ months. Same as a systematic review or longer. *Varies beyond the type of review. Depends on many factors such as but not limited to: resources available, the quantity and quality of the literature, and the expertise or experience of reviewers" (Grant et al. 2009)
Question: Addresses 2 or more specific PICO criteria, "Mixed methods reviews should pose a question that specifically requires the inclusion of two or more syntheses that are grounded in different approaches". A priori review protocol is recommended.
Examples of and clearly articulated PICO questions that may be posed by one mixed methods systematic review are:
1. What is the effectiveness of educational strategies associated with insulin pump therapy?
2. What is the appropriateness of educational strategies associated with insulin pump therapy”
Is your review question a complex intervention? Learn more about Reviews of Complex Interventions
Sources and searches: Types of studies and their findings are mixed. This requires a very broad search or multiple structured searches. "This should address each of the syntheses included in the review...[and] aims to find both published and unpublished studies."
See our Systematic Review Search Service for help conducting the search!
Selection: Based upon inclusion criteria.
- "The quantitative component of the review will consider any experimental study design including randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental, before and after studies for inclusion."
- "The qualitative component of the review will consider studies that focus on qualitative data including, but not limited to, designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research. In the absence of research studies, other text such as opinion papers and reports will be considered. The textual component of the review will consider expert opinion, discussion papers, position papers and other text. • The economic component of the review will consider cost effectiveness, cost benefit, cost minimization, cost utility."
Appraisal: "This should address each of the syntheses included in the review." (Example: Quantitative, Qualitative, Textual or Economic papers) The appropriate critical appraisal tool or method should be applied by study type or there should be one general tool used that will represent all study designs.
Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) This link opens a PDF document.
Synthesis: Depends on findings and included studies, applying mixed synthesis methods (qualitative: thematic synthesis/meta-ethnography & quantitative: statistical meta-analysis). “The results of each single method synthesis included in the mixed method review will be extracted in numerical, tabular or textual format."
(Source: Joanna Briggs Institute 2014)