The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) contains writing resources and instructional materials focused on the writing process, academic writing, mechanics, grammar, punctuation, and more.
What is APA Style?
(Developed by Dr. Marcy Goldsmith and the Librarian at Tufts University.)
APA style was developed and is maintained by the American Psychological Association (APA). It is heavily used by the social sciences, behavioral sciences, and many other disciplines.
Features: Focuses on dates the study was published; page numbers may also be cited. Features in-text parenthetical citations of author(s) and date: (Smith, 1998). A page number also must be added for quotes taken from a specific page: (Smith, 1998, p. 123). Endnotes or footnotes may be used to add supplementary comments.
Citation manual: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
CITATION EXAMPLES: BOOKS
Example Lastname, Initial. (Year). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher.
Howard, B. (1976). Boston, a social history. New York: Hawthorn Books.
Two or three authors
Gilbert, S. M., & Gubar, S. (1979). The madwoman in the attic: The woman writer and the nineteenth-century literary imagination.
New Haven: Yale University Press.
Editor or compiler as author
Monson, I. (Ed.). (2000). The African diaspora: A musical perspective. New York: Garland.
Article or chapter in a book
Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory. In H. L. Roediger & F. I. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of
memory & consciousness (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
CITATION EXAMPLES: PERIODICALS
Example Lastname, Initial. (Date). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume, Pages.
Article in a scholarly journal
Strecher, M. C. (1998) Beyond ‘Pure’ literature: Mimesis, formula, and the postmodern in the fiction of Murakami Haruki. Journal of Asian
Studies, 57(2), 354-378.
NOTE: Issue number is included only if each issue begins on page 1.
Entire issue or special section of a journal
Barlow, D. H. (Ed.) (2006). Diagnoses, dimensions, and DSM-IV: The science of classification [Special issue]. Journal of Unusual Psychology,
Article in a newspaper
Hall, C. (2002, August 18). Reliving the 1200’s with sweat, muscle, and no-tech tools. New York Times, p. B27.
Article in a popular magazine
Lacayo, R. (2002, Sept. 23). Kids are us! Time, 160, 68-70.
Periodical published annually
Fisk, C. (1978). Social cognition and social perception. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 168-197.
CITATION EXAMPLES: E-RESOURCES
Journal article from library database with DOI assigned
Stultz, J. (2006). Integrating exposure therapy and analytic therapy in trauma treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(4), 4820488.
Journal article from library database with no DOI assigned
Sillick, T.J., & Schutte, N.S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult
happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap/article/view/71/100
Hilts, P.J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. The New York Times. Retrieved from
Online magazine with no print counterpart
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment. Retrieved November 20,
2000, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html.
O’Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from http://www.onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=135
NOTE: If a DOI has been assigned, use it instead of the URL.
Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.) The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu
Tufts University Archives and Special Collections. (1999). Women’s bodies, women’s property. Retrieved September 30, 2003 from Tufts
University Digital Collections and Archives web site: http://nils.lib.tufts.edu/archives/Exhibits/Law/index.html.
Psychometric assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2007, from The Psychology Wiki:
Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2006, October 13). Understanding autism [Show 54]. Shrink Rap Radio. [Audio file]. Retrieved from
Maria. (2009, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log message]. Retrieved from