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Systematic Reviews & Other Review Types

This guide will help you get started with your next systematic review, scoping review, or other review types.

Tools for Critical Appraisal

"Critical appraisal skills enable you to assess the trustworthiness, relevance and results of published papers so that you can decide if they are believable and useful."  

(http://www.casp-uk.net/criticalappraisal)

 

Learn more about Critical Appraisal

Critical Appraisal Checklists by specific Study Design type

Randomized Controlled Trials

ROB 2.0 Risk Of Bias Tool

There are 3 variations of the tool based on trial design.  Choose the appropriate version.

1.  Individually randomized, parallel group trials (traditional RCT)

2.  Cluster randomized, parallel group trials (like traditional but randomized by groups)

3.  Individual randomized, cross-over trials (randomization occurs to determine the order the patient receives both treatments)

http://www.bristol.ac.uk/population-health-sciences/centres/cresyda/barr/riskofbias/rob2-0/​


CASP: Randomised Controlled Trial Appraisal Tool
Summary: Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP): RCT CAT is a methodological checklist which provides key criteria relevant to randomised controlled trials.
Authors: Public Health Resource Unit, NHS, England

http://media.wix.com/ugd/dded87_40b9ff0bf53840478331915a8ed8b2fb.pdf

Non-randomized Studies or Observational Studies:

ROBINS-I Risk of Bias for non-randomized (observational) studies or cohorts of Interventions

http://www.bristol.ac.uk/population-health-sciences/centres/cresyda/barr/riskofbias/robins-i/​

ROBINS-E Risk of Bias for non-randomized (observational) studies or cohorts of Exposures other than interventions, including environmental and occupational exposures

http://www.bristol.ac.uk/population-health-sciences/centres/cresyda/barr/riskofbias/robins-e/​

Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) -most widely used for case control or cohort studies

http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp

IHE Case Series Studies Critical Appraisal Checklist

https://www.ihe.ca/research-programs/rmd/cssqac/cssqac-about

JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Case Series

https://wiki.joannabriggs.org/display/MANUAL/Appendix+7.3+Critical+appraisal+checklists+for+case+series

JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Case Reports

https://wiki.joannabriggs.org/display/MANUAL/Appendix+7.4+Critical+appraisal+checklist+for+case+reports

The Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINOR) is a tool for assessing non-randomized interventional studies  http://cobe.paginas.ufsc.br/files/2014/10/MINORS.pdf

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) methodological checklist for cross-sectional/prevalence studies

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK35156/#_A157879_

AXIS-To assess the quality of cross-sectional/prevalence studies

http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/bmjopen/6/12/e011458.full.pdf

The TREND Statement
Summary: The TREND (Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Nonrandomized Designs) statement is a 22-item checklist specifically developed to guide standardized reporting of nonrandomized controlled trials. 

http://www.cdc.gov/trendstatement/

The STROBE Statement

Strengthening the reporting of observational studies (cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional) 

http://www.strobe-statement.org/index.php?id=available-checklists

McMaster Critical Review Forms and Guidelines - Quantitative and Qualitative Studies

http://srs-mcmaster.ca/research/evidence-based-practice-research-group/

Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT)-used for qualitative, quantitative, and/or mixed methods studies. Helpful for those working on a Mixed Methods Review

http://mixedmethodsappraisaltoolpublic.pbworks.com/w/page/24607821/FrontPage

Public Health:

MetaQat - Meta-Tool for appraising all types of public health evidence

http://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/ServicesAndTools/Pages/Critical-Appraisal-Tool.aspx

Quantitative Research (Public Health Research)

EPHPP- Quality Assessment tool for Quantitative Studies 

https://merst.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/quality-assessment-tool_2010.pdf

Animal Research:

Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation (SYRCLE) risk of bias assessment tool for assessing animal studies

Article: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24667063  Checklist: https://issuu.com/radboudumc/docs/syrcle_efsa_course_1_okt_2016__qual_0ad24ecd419b5d?e=28355229/45909409

(invivo studies) Review the ARRIVE guidelines  

https://www.nc3rs.org.uk/arrive-guidelines

Critical Appraisal of Studies using Animal Models
http://ilarjournal.oxfordjournals.org/content/55/3/405.full.pdf+html

Diagnostic Accuracy

QUADAS-2

To evaluate the risk of bias and applicability of primary diagnostic accuracy studies.

http://www.bristol.ac.uk/media-library/sites/quadas/migrated/documents/quadas2.pdf


CASP: Diagnostic Test Studies  

http://media.wix.com/ugd/dded87_3815f02af1b34c21b8c3b2b5020024c3.pdf

Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM) Diagnosis Critical Appraisal Worksheet  

http://media.wix.com/ugd/dded87_3815f02af1b34c21b8c3b2b5020024c3.pdf

 

Critical Appraisal of Clinical Practice Guidelines

AGREE II

International tool for the assessment of practice guidelines

https://www.agreetrust.org/resource-centre/agree-ii/

Critical Appraisal of Systematic Reviews

ROBIS- A tool for assessing the risk of bias in systematic reviews. 

 http://www.bristol.ac.uk/social-community-medicine/projects/robis/robis-tool/

AMSTAR 2-A Measurement Tool to Assess (quality assessment) of Systematic Reviews

http://amstar.ca/

Health-Evidence Appraisal Tool for Reviews

http://healthevidence.org/documents/our-appraisal-tools/QATool&Dictionary_01Jun16.pdf

AHRQ-Assessing the Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews of Healthcare Interventions

https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/topics/methods-bias-update/methods

Grading the Strength of Evidence

For additional help

Systematic Review Service:

The health sciences library Chat with a Librarian service is available at https://www.library.temple.edu/hsl. Many of our librarians are available to provide systematic review education. Or you may reach the Team Lead, Stephanie Roth: Email stephanie.roth@temple.edu Phone (215) 707-9469