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1L Tool Kit

Basic library resources for first-year students.

Citation Basics

Get familiar with common forms of legal citation. Be sure to use the ALWD or Bluebook citation guides.

  • Statutory Codes - title number, source abbreviation, section number, and year in parentheses
  • Case Reports - party names, volume number, source abbreviation, page number, and court and year in parentheses
  • Articles - author, title in italics, volumber number, source abbreviation in small caps, page number and year and parentheses


18 Pa.C.S.A. § 5511.1 (2000).



Pestalozzi v. Philadelphia Flyers, 576 A.2d 72 (Pa. Super. Ct. 1990).



David Hoffman, Best Puffery Article Ever, 91 Iowa L. Rev. 1395 (2006).


red - volume or title number

blue - source abbreviation, including series

purple - initial page or section number

green - date